OSINT- Basque ETA

Also Known As: Basque Fatherland and Liberty; Askatasuna; Batasuna; Ekin; Euskal Herritarrok; Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna; Herri Batasuna; Jarrai-Haika-Segi; K.A.S.; XAKI

Description:  The United States designated the ETA as a FTO on October 8, 1997. The group, founded in 1959, has adopted a Basque nationalist and Marxist identity against the governments of Spain and France.

Targets: Key targets of the ETA include Spanish military and civic personnel, as well as civilians.

Activities: The ETA has executed numerous attacks against its targets, including targeted killings and bombings. Members of the group. Key high profile bombings include the assassination of Spanish Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973, the 2005 car bombing in Madrid, and the 2009 bombing of Civil Guard Barracks. Rapid arrests by French and Spanish authorities led to ETA announcing a “definitive cessation” of armed activity in October 2011.

Diplomacy: The ETA has conducted cross training with Irish Republican cells through arms smuggling and the exchange of best practices.

Strength: Estimated to be 100 active members and 750 incarcerated members in Spain and France.

AO: Spain and France

Funding and External Aid:  The ETA used TNOC, such as extortion through a “revolutionary tax,” to fund its operations, but has renounced this activity.

Basque County, courtesy of the Center for Basque Studies

Basque County, courtesy of the Center for Basque Studies

Local Media: 

Naiz. Basque ETA.” Accessed December 29, 2014.

Sustatu.Basque ETA.” Accessed December 29, 2014.

Global Media:

BBC. What is Eta?.” October 20, 2011. Accessed December 29, 2014.

CNN. Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

Foreign Affairs. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

Foreign Policy. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

The Guardian. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

NPR. Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

NYT. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

Reuters. Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

VOA. Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

WaPo. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

Think Tanks / Academic:

Brookings. “Basque ETA.” Accessed December 29, 2014.

CFR. “Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) (Spain, separatists, Euskadi ta Askatasuna).” November 17, 2008. Accessed December 29, 2014.

CSIS. “Basque ETA.” Accessed December 29, 2014.

CTC. “Basque ETA.” Accessed December 28, 2014.

FAS. “Basque Fatherland and Liberty.” May 3, 2004. Accessed December 29, 2014.

ICG. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

TRAC. “Basque ETA.” Accessed December 29, 2014.

UNESCO.Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in the Basque Country, 1979-2001.” 2002. Accessed December 29, 2014.

Government: 

Defense Department. “Basque.” Accessed December 29, 2014.

DIA. “Annual Threat Assessment.” February 11, 2014.

NCTC. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

State Department. “Basque ETA.” 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014.

State Department. “BASQUE FATHERLAND AND LIBERTY.” Chapter 6: Foreign Terrorist Organizations. Country Reports on Terrorism 2013.

Treasury Department. “Designations of Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Members.” February 26, 2002. Accessed December 29, 2014.

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